WHAT IS GLAUCOMA?
The build-up of pressure inside your eye leads to glaucoma. Aqueous fluid, which fills the space at the front of the eye just behind the cornea, is made behind the iris (the colored part of the eye) in the ciliary body. It flows through the pupil (the dark hole in the center of the iris), and drains from the 'anterior chamber angle,' which is the junction between the edge of the iris and the cornea. If this outflow of liquid is impaired at all, there is a build-up of pressure inside the eye that damages the optic nerve, which carries visual images to the brain.
The result is a loss of peripheral vision. Thus, while glaucoma sufferers may be able to read the smallest line on the vision test, they may find it difficult to move around without bumping into things or to see moving objects to the side.
WHAT CAUSES GLAUCOMA?
Symptoms of glaucoma may be a gradual loss of side vision or blurred vision. Some causes are known, others are note. Causes differ depending on the type of glaucoma. The exact cause of open-angle glaucoma, where the drainage changels for the aqueous appear to be open and clear, is not known.
Closed-angle glaucoma can occur when the pupil dilates or gets bigger and bunches the iris up around its edge, blocking the drainage channel. An injury, infection or tumor in or around the eye can also cause internal eye pressure to rise either by blocking drainage or displacing tissues and liquid within the eye.
A mature cataract also can push the iris forward to block the drainage 'angle' between the iris and the cornea. Glaucoma can occur secondarily to a number of other conditions, such as diabetes, or as a result of some medications for other conditions.
WHO GETS GLAUCOMA?
Glaucoma most frequently occurs after age 40, but can occur at any age.
If you're of African heritage, you are more likely to develop open-angle glaucoma -- and at an earlier age -- than if you're Caucasian. Asians are more likely to develop narrow-angle glaucoma.
You have a higher risk of developing glaucoma if a close family member has it or if you have high blood pressure or high blood sugar (diabetes). There is also a greater tendency for glaucoma to develop in individuals who are nearsighted. Those at heightened risk for glaucoma should have their eyes checked at least once a year.
WHY IS GLAUCOMA HARMFUL TO VISION?
The optic nerve, located at the back of the eye, carries visual information to the brain. As the fibers that make up the optic nerve are damaged by glaucoma, the amount and quality of information sent to the brain decreases and a loss of vision occurs.
WILL I GO BLIND FROM GLAUCOMA?
If diagnosed at an early stage, glaucoma can be controlled and little or no further vision loss should occur. If left untreated, side awareness (peripheral vision) and central vision will be destroyed and blindness may occur.
HOW IS GLAUCOMA DETECTED?
There are no symptoms for glaucoma. A patient will rarely notice pain or changes in vision until it is too late. Only during your comprehensive eye health evaluation will our doctors be able to detect glaucoma. A painless test called Tonometry measures the internal pressure of the eye. This pressure is unrelated to blood pressure and can only be assessed during an eye examination.
Biomicroscopy examines the back of the eye to observe the health of the optic nerve. A visual field test, a very sensitive test that checks for the development of abnormal blind spots, is also frequently completed.
Other technology utilized by our doctors for the early detection, treatment and management of glaucoma includes High definition Ocular Coherence Tomography (HD-OCT). This technology utilizes 27,000 A-scans per second to provide an optical biopsy of the optic nerve. Infinitesimal changes that would be missed with to the human eye become visible allowing our doctors to intervene with timely treatment adjustments. These adjustments can often make the difference between permanent vision loss and preserved vision.
HOW IS GLAUCOMA TREATED?
Glaucoma is usually treated with prescription eye drops and medicines. In some cases, surgery may be required to improve drainage. The goal of the treatment is to prevent loss of vision by lowering the pressure in the eye.
WILL MY VISION BE RESTORED AFTER TREATMENT?
Unfortunately, any vision loss as a result of glaucoma is permanent and cannot be restored. This is why regular eye examinations are important. Glaucoma cannot be prevented, but early detection and treatment can control glaucoma and reduce the chances of damage to the eye and a loss of sight.